Elon Musk instructed the world in late 2017 that Tesla was taking its automotive know-how and making use of it to a completely new problem: self-driving large rigs. However one 12 months later, he positioned the Tesla Semi fourth on a list of priorities for the company, behind the upcoming Mannequin Y compact SUV and an electrical pickup truck. This week, Daimler executed a transfer a few years within the making by saying its personal large rig (albeit diesel-powered) outfitted with semi-autonomous expertise. And others are following go well with.
The German automaker additionally dedicated to manufacturing the truck this summer season, with deliveries scheduled for later this 12 months. It pledged 500 million euros over the subsequent few years to the continued improvement of an autonomous large rig, and stated it has employed lots of of workers to maneuver the tech ahead. And similar to it did when it unveiled the prototype model in 2015, Daimler gave us a experience within the truck to get a style of what the close to way forward for trucking will appear like.
Whereas there are a number of Tesla Semi prototypes on the highway now, and a dozen or so large title firms have positioned preorders for the vehicles, it doesn’t appear like a manufacturing model is coming any time quickly. Tesla nonetheless hasn’t stated the place or precisely when it should construct the vehicles, and would seemingly want to boost more cash (or promote a hell of much more Mannequin 3s) to fund the undertaking.
This has left the door extensive open for firms like Daimler, the mum or dad firm of Mercedes-Benz. Daimler introduced it was working by itself self-driving large rig in 2015 when it confirmed off a working prototype referred to as the Freightliner Inspiration Truck. The automaker went large, debuting the truck on the Hoover Dam and providing check rides at Las Vegas Motor Speedway. This week on the Shopper Electronics Present, Daimler returned to Las Vegas to make good on its promise with a manufacturing model of that prototype truck.
The brand new Cascadia will not be way more superior than the prototype was in 2015. In actual fact, the expertise remains to be fairly restricted. Daimler says it’s the primary Class eight business truck with Degree 2 autonomy (referring to the Society of Automotive Engineers’ scale for self-driving definitions), which means the motive force is in management, however is supported closely by the truck’s expertise in sure conditions. In that sense, the brand new Cascadia basically has the identical fundamental driver help expertise many trendy automobiles provide, together with computerized lane centering, adaptive cruise management, and emergency braking.
However the brand new Cascadia is doing this with a restricted set of sensors. There’s a forward-facing digicam, a forward-facing radar, a second radar sensor on the precise facet of the truck. That bundle pales compared to the handfuls of cameras, ultrasonic sensors, and radars you’d discover powering Autopilot, not to mention the Tesla Semi, which is meant to have a beefed-up model of this similar sensor suite.
This helps maintain prices down, however means the expertise is extra in keeping with what you’d discover powering one thing like Nissan’s ProPilot driver help function versus Autopilot, and even Audi’s supposedly Degree three system, which makes use of related tech, however depends on LIDAR as nicely.
Retaining with a theme of much less is extra, there’s additionally no camera-based monitoring system within the truck to verify the motive force pays consideration whereas utilizing the Degree 2 options. As an alternative, the Cascadia makes use of a system just like the one present in Tesla’s automobiles.
A sensor within the steering column measures resistance utilized to the steering wheel. If the motive force takes their fingers off the wheel whereas utilizing the lane centering function, the instrument cluster will, after about 15 seconds, floor a warning that tells them to put their fingers again on the wheel. If the motive force doesn’t do this, the warning adjustments from yellow to pink. After one other 60 seconds, if the motive force nonetheless hasn’t put their fingers again on the wheel, the truck will come to a cease on the facet of the highway.
The brand new Cascadia is a far cry from a totally autonomous truck, however based mostly on my transient experience, Daimler has refined the expertise in comparison with the prototype model. The prototype swayed on the freeway throughout my two-mile demo experience in 2015, ping-ponging between the lane markers. The brand new truck, in the meantime, felt locked to the middle of the lane throughout this week’s experience, which adopted the identical actual route from a number of years in the past.
A Daimler consultant additionally instructed me that, whereas lane centering is on, the motive force may even select the place the system locations them within the lane. (For instance, if a driver is on a good one-lane freeway and needs to keep away from clipping oncoming visitors, they might inform the truck to hug the precise lane line.) That is one other signal that system is maturing from what debuted in 2015, although it’s a small one.
Daimler promised another trendy applied sciences are coming the brand new Cascadia, although none of it was on show within the preproduction vehicles getting used for the demonstration. The corporate plans to supply an optionally available 10-inch touchscreen within the dashboard, and a 12-inch digital cluster behind the steering wheel. The truck will be capable of obtain over-the-air software program updates, too.
The Cascadia received’t be as full of tech because the Tesla Semi, neither is it as glossy. However it is going to be out there later this 12 months. Daimler has argued that bringing automation to trucking will assist squeeze higher gas effectivity out of the tens of millions of miles that its large rigs cowl yearly. It could lower the toll these miles tackle the drivers. Most significantly, it may assist scale back the some 4,000 fatalities that consequence from crashes involving these large hunks of equipment. If all goes nicely, we would have a way by the tip of this 12 months of whether or not any of that’s true.
Daimler wasn’t the one firm showcasing a truck with autonomous tech this week at CES. TuSimple, a startup headquartered in each China and California and backed partially by Nvidia, introduced a Navistar truck outfitted with its personal tech that founder Xiaodi Hou says can fully drive itself in restricted, fastidiously mapped geographic areas with out human intervention. That is what the SAE refers to as Degree Four autonomy, and it’s the identical stage of self-driving that Waymo is trying in Arizona proper now.
Whereas TuSimple didn’t display its truck at CES this week, the startup has been making Degree Four check runs for over a 12 months in several areas throughout the US. It’s additionally carrying cargo on a few of these check runs for round 12 business companions — although Hou received’t say which of them simply but.
Daimler is likely to be taking a sluggish strategy to growing the autonomy of its vehicles, however Hou says Degree Four is feasible within the close to future. “We’re assured of launching this factor every single day, and it’s been working every single day. I believe that may be very large information to distinguish us from the remainder of the opposite gamers,” he says.
The important thing, based on Hou, is just trying to function in these fastidiously plotted domains. “We solely function inside that area we outline. Mainly now we have pre-mapped the situation and we’ve been run by means of the map and that there’s no surprises to us,” he says.
Moreover, Hou says, whereas Degree 2 techniques can have advantages, they received’t resolve one of many largest issues dealing with trucking proper now: driver shortages. If TuSimple can get a Degree Four truck on the highway someday within the subsequent few years, even when it’s restricted to sure areas, Hou believes eradicating the necessity for a licensed security driver will assist the trade sort out this downside. He additionally thinks that change will probably be sufficient to make TuSimple money movement optimistic.
“The distinction between the price of constructing a extra dependable system versus a mediocre assisted driving system is that this excessive,” Hou says, spreading his fingers a number of toes aside. He then pinches his fingers collectively. “Nonetheless the worth of your return [on Level 2] is that this small.”
For what it’s price, Daimler’s head of trucking Martin Daum stated this previous week that his firm stays centered on growing extremely automated vehicles, regardless of the concentrate on partial automation. “We’ve a transparent objective to stay pioneers,” he stated. “And we wish to put a Degree Four truck on the highway right here in the USA this 12 months. Keep tuned.”
What’s clear from the presence of those firms at this 12 months’s present is that this: a large German automaker is able to begin augmenting how people transfer items round our nation. “We’re prepared to maneuver boldly ahead,” Daum stated. Others, like TuSimple, are nonetheless testing the outer bounds of what’s attainable, whereas making an attempt to make a sustainable, if restricted, enterprise out of it within the brief time period.
Tesla’s recognized for being a frontrunner in bringing new applied sciences to passenger automobiles. It sparked a transfer to electrical propulsion, triggered a landslide of large touchscreens, and impressed automakers to develop their very own partially automated driver help techniques.
However by the point it enters the trucking trade with a business product, the corporate will probably be taking part in a little bit of catch-up, no less than with respect to autonomy. If partial or full autonomy turns into a distinguishing issue for firms that promote vehicles, Tesla must persuade clients that Autopilot is best than tech that’s already on the highway (all whereas combating a separate battle: convincing clients that electrical propulsion is a viable possibility on the earth of hauling freight). That’s attainable, maybe even seemingly. It’s simply not precisely typical for Tesla.
Images by Sean O’Kane